Hypersomnia vs Narcolepsy: Symptoms Chart, Causes, and Treatments

The symptoms were initially relatively mild, but he did have a car accident during an episode of narcolepsy. Over the next 3 years the symptoms gradually got worse; the intensity and frequency of episodes appeared related to the amount of alcohol he consumed. After 3 years of these symptoms he changed to a less stressful driving job and was able to gradually decrease his drinking without serious withdrawal symptoms. Over the subsequent 2 years the frequency of acute daytime drowsiness and cataplectic episodes decreased somewhat, but his nighttime insomnia remained.

narcolepsy and alcohol

People with narcolepsy are more likely to be overweight. Sometimes weight rapidly increases when sleepiness symptoms start. It can cause slurred speech or complete weakness of most muscles. To improve your sleep quality, try eating smaller meals and snacks.

What Is REM Sleep Behavior Disorder?

You’ll need to take four to five naps throughout the day, each 2 hours apart. People with narcolepsy also often have depression and anxiety, but it’s not clear whether these are symptoms of narcolepsy or due to its symptoms affecting their quality of life. Usually, people with type 2 narcolepsy have normal levels of hypocretin.

narcolepsy and alcohol

Clinical research uses human volunteers to help researchers learn more about a disorder and perhaps find better ways to safely detect, treat, or prevent disease. Amphetamine-like stimulants—In cases where modafinil is not effective, doctors signs of a functioning alcoholic may prescribe amphetamine-like stimulants such as methylphenidate to alleviate EDS. However, these medications must be carefully monitored because they can have side effects. Genetic tests and a lumbar puncture, known as a spinal tap.

Sometimes cataplexy may occur later in the disease course, or may go undetected due to medications that suppress it, such as certain antidepressants. Laughing and intense emotions, such as excitement and fear, can trigger cataplexy. How often it occurs varies from person to person. It can happen several times a day to once a year.

How To Identify and Manage Narcolepsy Symptoms in Children

However, narcolepsy shares symptoms with several other brain- and sleep-related conditions. Because of that, the only way to diagnose narcolepsy conclusively is with specialized diagnostic tests. Your brain shuts down muscle control in your body to keep you from acting out your dreams, but this should end when you wake up.

narcolepsy and alcohol

Individuals should discuss with their doctors the exact timing and dosing of their medications, to reduce the likelihood of side effects. For people with mild to moderate sleepiness, modafinil or armodafinil are often good choices. For people with more severe sleepiness, however, amphetamines or sodium oxybate often produce the best results.

Hypothyroidism and Narcolepsy: Is There a Connection?

In narcolepsy, you may suddenly enter REM sleep without going through NREM sleep. This can happen both at night and during the day. Cataplexy, sleep paralysis and hallucinations are similar to changes that occur in REM sleep. But in narcolepsy they happen while you’re awake or drowsy. The typical process of falling asleep begins with a phase called non-rapid eye movement sleep. After an hour or so of NREM sleep, brain activity changes and REM sleep begins.

While individuals with narcolepsy are very sleepy during the day, they usually also experience difficulties staying asleep at night. Very vivid and sometimes frightening images can accompany sleep paralysis and usually occur when people are falling asleep or waking up. It is estimated that anywhere from 135,000 to 200,000 people in the United States have narcolepsy. However, since this condition often goes undiagnosed, the number may be higher. Many patients with narcolepsy feel stigma related to the condition that can lead to social withdrawal. Without proper support, this may contribute to mental health disorders and negatively affect school, work, and relationships.

  • More research is needed to understand environmental contributors to REM sleep behavior disorder.
  • They’re called hypnopompic hallucinations if they happen upon waking.
  • These older medications can have unpleasant side effects, such as constipation, dry mouth, and urinary retention.
  • The symptoms of narcolepsy generally don’t get worse with age.

Does the Proximity of Meals to Bedtime Influence the Sleep of Young Adults? A Cross-Sectional Survey of University Students. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17, 2677. Are headache, nausea, appetite loss, and nervousness. Armodafinil is a chemically similar drug with roughly equivalent benefits and risks.

In an inpatient rehab center, patients who have suffered from sleep disorders as a result of alcohol use are given new techniques to rest their body and mind. This supervised and supportive environment can help to restore a sense of rest and well-being. If a person stops drinking suddenly, they may experience dangerous withdrawal symptoms, including seizures. The best way to address co-occurring narcolepsy and alcohol use is with the help of a formal treatment center. Narcolepsy and its accompanying symptom of excessive daytime sleepiness pose a driving safety…

Your doctor may refer you to a sleep lab for a polysomnogram, an overnight sleep study. During the study, sensors monitor your breathing, eye movements, arm and leg movements, brain and heart activity, and blood oxygen levels. It’s common to videotape the exam to record any dream enactment behavior. Some types of antidepressants can help with muscle control in people with narcolepsy.

Is Narcolepsy Linked to Vitamin Deficiency?

You also may experience a decrease in how alert and focused you feel during the day. Daytime sleepiness often is the first symptom to appear. Feeling sleepy makes it hard to focus and function.

Sleep Solutions

Also, the muscle weakness or dream activity of REM sleep can occur during wakefulness or be absent during sleep. This helps explain some symptoms of narcolepsy. Sodium oxybate is the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyrate , a naturally occurring substance in the brain.

Excessive daytime sleepiness could also be caused by sleep deprivation, the use of sedating medicines and sleep apnea. The initial line of treatment is usually a central nervous system stimulant such as modafinil. Nearly all people with narcolepsy who have cataplexy have extremely low levels of the naturally occurring chemical do older people react differently to alcohol hypocretin, which promotes wakefulness and regulates REM sleep. Hypocretin levels are usually normal in people who have narcolepsy without cataplexy. January 27, 2023 – Use of 3-D printed tablets with compartments containing different drugs could customize the release of medicine for people with sleep disorders.

Both conditions can be treated using lifestyle changes and medications. Nap therapy may also be effective for narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is caused by a disruption to the brain’s sleep-wake cycle, often but not always due to low levels of a chemical called hypocretin. Narcolepsy can also be caused by an injury, tumor, or health condition that affects areas of the brain involved with sleep. When you fall asleep, you typically move through three stages of NREM sleep first.

However, side effects, such as lightheadedness and dry mouth, are common. Medications, lifestyle adjustments, and avoiding hazardous activities can all play a part in managing this condition. early signs of liver damage from alcohol An ActiGraph or other home monitoring system can keep track of how and when you fall asleep. This device is worn like a wristwatch and may be used together with a sleep diary.

How Old is Kratos in God of War Ragnarok?

However, it seems that Hermes didn’t contribute to Kratos’ service as much as the other gods did, as he is not shown giving Kratos any assignments to do. Kratos encounters him during his war against Olympus but Kratos didn’t see him as a threat and only attacked Hermes when he insulted and provoked him. Hermes, instead of fighting Kratos, tried to avoid him by running at fast speeds.


Stricken with horror and grief at what he had done, Kratos left the bodies of his family to be burned within the temple, ultimately renouncing his allegiance to the God of War. The oracle cursed Kratos, forcing him to forever wear the ashes of his dead family on his skin. Comparing Kratos’ character model from God of War III to his character model from God of War 2018, he became noticeably shorter in height in the 2018 release. While his height has remained inconsistently reported throughout the series, he was roughly a whopping 8 feet-ish tall during the entire Greek saga, though he is roughly 6 foot 6 inches tall in the 2018 release.

When he succeeded and returned Helios to his rightful place in the sky, Helios was grateful and even wanted to help Kratos when he was found weak after the journey but was denied by Athena who knew he would live. They would see each other again when Kratos waged war against the gods of Olympus, with Helios fighting for Olympus. With Helios weakened and at Kratos’ mercy, he remembered the debt he still owed Kratos and begged Kratos to save him again, promising to repay him.

Many years after the events of God of War III, Kratos, having survived his apparent death from releasing the power of Hope in Greece, ended up in ancient Scandinavia in the Norse realm of Midgard and fathered a young son named Atreus, who is unaware of his true nature. Kratos has abandoned his double-chained blades as a symbolism of abandoning his old persona; instead, he uses a magical battle axe called the Leviathan Axe that originally belonged to his second wife and Atreus’ mother Laufey , who recently passed. Her last wish was for her ashes to be spread at the highest peak of the nine realms. At Midgard’s peak, they learn from Mímir that the highest peak is actually in Jötunheim. Along their journey, they are confronted by the Æsir god Baldur, the brother of Thor whose sons Modi and Magni assist their uncle, but are killed by Kratos and Atreus.


Atlas told Kratos more about the Great War and how it ended when Zeus created the Blade of Olympus. Atlas gave Kratos some of his power and lifted him back to the surface, where he continued his journey into the Palace of Fates. Entering Euryale’s temple, he obtained the Golden Fleece from a wounded soldier , which could deflect enemy attacks. Kratos used this weapon to defeat a nearby Cerberus and, eventually, Euryale herself. Enraged at Kratos for decapitating her sister Medusa, Euryale fought with great ferocity but was defeated when Kratos pulled her own head off as well.

He would not listen to her, and continued his rampage, blindly following the will of Ares in his pursuit of more bloodshed and infamy — yet this took a tragic turn when the god tricked him into killing his wife and child, all to destroy what little humanity he had left. Branded https://cryptolisting.org/ the Ghost of Sparta for this terrible deed, the ashes of his wife and child would remain fused to his skin forever. But beyond the world-annihilating stakes, realms that need assistance, and huge battles, Ragnarök is simply a game about a father and son and all that entails.


The inscription reads to the effect of “Armour of the Prince who stood alone against the Persian Army.” This was confirmed by Ninja Theory as accreditation to the God of War series for being such a heavy influence to their own production. Daimon, for the Oath Stone of Orkos, the Hydra, for the boat captain’s key, the Cerberus Mole for the Golden Fleece, Cronos, for the Omphalos Stone, and The World Serpent, for Mimir’s second eye. And husband of Laufey in Norse mythology.The Jötunheim mural also refers him as Einherjar, warriors chosen by the Valkyries to fight for Odin during Ragnarök, despite he is not yet being slain in a battle and being brought to Valhalla by any of the Valkyries.

Comics (present), Ghost of Sparta, and Betrayal

Atreus is shocked upon learning that was his father killing his grandfather and asks of how this always ends, with children killing their parents since their gods. But Kratos assures him that they “will be the gods choose to be, not those who have been”. Mimir asks if they’re the bad guys now, Kratos says that might be true, but she could never make that choice. Atreus asks why Freya threatened his father even though she loathed the Aesir, Mimir states that they killed her son and that the death of a child is something that a parent cannot get over. But he assures him that Freya will get over her son’s death over time and that Kratos did the right thing. Once again, Kratos woke up in a dream realm where he was confronted by Athena and the Egyptian God of Wisdom, Thoth.

At that moment, the Ghost of Sparta saw the Sun fall from the sky and vanish, leaving the world in darkness. Making his way to Alecto’s chamber, What is KRATOS retrieved the Oath Stone from Tisiphone’s pet bird, Daimon. Upon entering the chamber, the Furies project another illusion, this time of Kratos’ home in Sparta. He came close to sleeping with the image of Lysandra, but soon notices the ring on her finger, revealing her to be Alecto.

  • While many of these gods such as Zeus, Ares or Poseidon are well known, there are plenty of gods that aren’t as well-known but are just as interesting.
  • Kratos tells him he was named after a compassionate spartan soldier who filled the lives of everyone with joy and happiness.
  • When Kratos attacked Olympus with the titans Poseidon battled Kratos with all his might to make him pay for the crimes he committed against him, only to be eventually killed by Kratos.
  • And with that, I realized I was tumbling headfirst into a daunting and challenging dream project.”
  • To this end, he asked Kratos to retrieve the Omphalos stone , promising to make him a special weapon with it.
  • Under the God of War’s influence, Kratos became utterly ruthless and gradually lost any semblance of the humanity he once had.

The simple act of finding love with Faye shows that he’s at least managed to move past the deaths of his original family. His unbelievably deep-seated self-loathing is one of the biggest contributors to why he is as screwed up as he is. Kratos is completely aware of what kind of man he is, and he bears a great many regrets about the numerous atrocities he’s committed over the years, his greatest failure being his killing of his own family.

In Greek Mythology

Using Hades’ own claws against him, Kratos further weakened the God of the Underworld and attached the claws to his now exposed, damaged skull, ripping the soul right out of his body, killing him. Hades’ death caused all of the souls in the Underworld to run rampant, tearing a giant hole in his abdomen which Kratos used to escape the area. Now in possession of Hades’ soul, Kratos gained the ability to swim through the River Styx unharmed and use the Hyperion Gate at will. There, he took two scholars hostage and forced them to read an incantation that Kratos himself could not read before ultimately sacrificing them both. Soon afterwards, he encountered the last remaining Spartan warrior, only this time shrouded in darkness.

He spoke with the dying oracle, who revealed Ares’ plan to mold Kratos into a warrior capable of overthrowing Zeus, thereby allowing Ares to become the new King of Olympus. The oath keeper revealed that he is the son of Ares and Alecto, one of the three Furies. Already feisty and aggressive at a young age, Kratos trained together with his younger brother, Deimos, who’s also a demigod, as they dreamed of joining the Spartan army when they grew up. Around this time, Zeus began to hear prophecies foretelling his demise at the hands of one of his sons, a “marked warrior”.

Kratos, Mimir, and a humbled Atreus paddle their boat into the serpent’s mouth and recover Mimir’s eye. Finally, Kratos succeeds in his mission to end the Greek pantheon, kills Zeus, and jumps off of Mount Olympus, seemingly to his doom. Set in ancient Greece, the hack-and-slash action game starred Kratos, an extremely angry general of the Spartan armies. One of the four siblings of the Titan Pallas and the eldest Oceanid, Styx, Kratos was, for the Ancient Greeks, a personification of brute Strength or Power.


During the first game, Kratos runs through a series of tasks to grant him the power to face down Ares himself. In the end, Kratos kills Ares and inherits the dead god’s former title, becoming the new god of war. Because after being granted extreme power by Ares, the Greek god of war, Kratos was tricked into slaughtering his own wife and daughter during a village raid.


It is unknown why many characters, even if they are fully aware of Kratos’ demigod status, still call him a mortal. It could be that they did not feel like calling him a demigod, or that they used it to make him appear weak. In God of War III and Ascension, Kratos’ head was slightly shrunk, and it made his head look disproportionately small in comparison to the rest of his body. This is easily noticable if one directly compares Kratos’ model between II and III.

When Kratos discovered that his brother Deimos was alive and being tortured by Thanatos, Kratos was enraged and vowed to rescue his brother. He hated Thanatos for all the pain he caused to Deimos and worked with his brother to make Thanatos pay. When Thanatos ended up killing Deimos, Kratos was grew apoplectic and killed Thanatos without mercy. Knowing of Kratos’ skill he hoped that he could recover her for him, but Kratos refused.

Hephaestus laughed in approval, claiming that Hades deserved to suffer but thought his death was impossible. Imparting more information to the Ghost of Sparta, Kratos bade farewell to Hephaestus and used a Hyperion Gate to escape from the Underworld. Progressing further into the temple, Kratos finds the Oracle dangling from a nearby cliff and rescues her. She immediately suspects that Kratos is motivated by something other than a desire to do good, and looks through his memories. The Oracle is horrified by Kratos’ past deeds and asks why Athena would ever call on someone like him. Kratos angrily grabs the Oracle by the throat and throws her aside, telling her to stay out of his head.

In God of War (

In October 2009, United Cutlery created a scaled replica of Kratos’ Blades of Chaos, which included a custom display stand with the God of War logo. Kratos was also featured in a line of action figures released by DC Unlimited and based on God of War III, which included the characters Zeus, Hades, and Hercules. Video game website X-Play filmed a parody music video of Robin Thicke’s “Sex Therapy” featuring Kratos and Aphrodite played by Jessica Drake. By the time of God of War, Kratos had been serving the gods for ten years and had grown tired of his service and nightmares. When he confronted his patron Athena, she advised him that if he killed the rampaging Ares, the gods would forgive his sins.

Furthermore, Odin views him as a threat given that he will take part in Ragnarok. This vase is painted with Kratos standing over a pile of bodies, holding the Blades of Exile and screaming into the air as blood drips from the blades. You could also use Hercules’ words to Kratos, telling him that when he kills him he will be the new God of War, much like what Kratos did when he killed Ares. Kratos has a cut character model that was originally going to be used in Ascension, but it was scrapped.

Atreus, with a full set of confidence, says she hasn’t been wrong yet and so close to the end, with Kratos looking at a plaque of Atreus holding a dead body screaming in agony. (most likely depicting his death, though this is yet to be true as there are inconsistencies with this body and Kratos.) Kratos and Atreus reach the top, noticing all the dead giants. Atreus hands over the bag full of ashes to his father, but Kratos says that they will do it together and calls him a son. After spreading her ashes, Atreus voices his confusion over his name on the wall, saying the Giants called him ‘Loki’. Kratos explained that was the name Faye wanted to call him when he was born and was probably the one she used when speaking of him with her people.

While the story is epic and filled with violence and monsters, Ragnarök never forgets that the father-and-son relationship is the heart of these God of War games, allowing both of them to grow and change by the game’s end. But before he had a son and long before he started angering Norse gods, Kratos was a brutal asshole in Greece, and one of his first victims was a cowardly boat captain who would end up running into Kratos multiple times throughout the original games. Laufey the Just, or Faye as she is affectionately called, became Kratos’ second wife after he left Greece for Midgard.